(i) Great Circles: is any circle that divides the globe into two equal halves or hemisphere. The equator is a great circle and all lines of longitude including the greenwich meridian line. Great Circles are equal in length. The shortest distance between two points on a spherical surface lies along the circle. Examples are The Equator(0°latitude), The Greenwich Meridian(0°longitude).

(ii) International Date Line: This os an imaginary line running North-South through the Pacific Ocean. The line is zig-zag at some places to avoid some island groups thereby removing the confusion of dividing one island into different dates. Whenever the international Date Line is crossed, a whole day is either lost or gained.

(iii) Time Zone: The world split into 24 time zones and each zone covers 15° of longitude or one hour. The difference between the two successive zones is one hour. All places located on the same time zone have the same time For every 15° movement across the Longitude west of Greenwich Mean Time, an hour is always lost while to the east an hour is gained.

(iv) Prime Meridian:

Under Parallel

Under Meridians


(i) Mechanically Formed Sedimentary Rocks: These are rocks which are formed as a result of the action of water wind and ice. The following rocks are the results of the action of water which include clays, gravel and aluminum. Those that result from the action of ice are moraine, boulder and gravel.
(ii) Organically Formed Sedimentary Rocks: These are rocks which are formed from the remains of plants and animals. Some of the notable rocks formed by the remains of animals are chalk and corals. Those that result from plants include peat and lignite.
(iii) Chemically Formed Sedimentary Rocks: These are rocks which results from chemical composition. The major rocks formed include Borax, gypsium.

(i) These rocks are resistance to erosion.
(ii) They occur in strata or layers.
(iii) They contain fossils of plants and animals.
(iv) They are non-crystalline in nature


[23/07, 08:51] CODEDBOSS: (4c)
(i) A-Climate

(ii) AW-Climate

(iii) C-Climate

(iv) E-Climate

(i) Absence of surface Drainage: Due to permeability of the region, most surface water flow a short distance and disappear.
(ii) Solubility: Limestone is insoluble but due to the action of rainwater in the which carbondioxode dissolves to form weak acid, which then makes the limestone to become soluble.
(iii) Presence of Dry Surface Valleys: Due to the easy penetration of water into karst region, all the valleys often remain dry.

Diagram Below Loading….

(i) Clints: Clints are surface features and isolated rectangular blocks which exist between joints or grikes.
(ii) Doline: This is formed when a number of several sink holes join together to form a large depression.
(iii) Grikes: This are surfaces features in limestone regions. They are formed as a result of gradual widening of the joints by solution to form limestone pavement.
[23/07, 08:51] CODEDBOSS: Use this very much accurate




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