(i)breed: Breed refers to a specific group of animals that share common characteristics and traits, such as appearance, behavior, and genetic makeup, that distinguish them from other groups within the same species.

(ii)genotype: genotype refers to the genetic makeup of an individual animal, comprising the specific combination of alleles (alternative forms of genes) it inherits from its parents.

(iii) Hybrid: hybrid refers to an individual resulting from the crossbreeding of two different breeds or species within the same genus.


(i)Loss of Genetic Diversity
(ii)Increased Expression of Undesirable Traits
(iii)Decreased Fitness and Vigor
(iv)Inbreeding Depression
(v)Loss of Adaptability
(vi)Reduced Production Efficiency

(i)Plant Protein Sources:
(Pick Any Two)

(i)Soybean meal
(ii)Cottonseed meal
(iii)Canola meal
(iv)Pea protein

(ii)Animal Protein Sources:
(Pick Any Two)

(i)Fish meal
(ii)Meat meal (rendered from various animal tissues)
(iii)Blood meal
(iv)Feather meal

(iii)Fiber Sources:
(Pick Any Two)

(i)Alfalfa hay
(ii)Timothy hay
(iii)Corn stalks
(ivWheat straw

(Pick Any Four)

(i)Limited Access to Technology
(ii)High Cost of Implementation
(iii)Limited Extension Services
(iv)Cultural and Religious Beliefs
(v)Lack of Awareness and Education
(vi)Preference for Natural Breeding



(i) Improved animal health and welfare.
(ii) Better control of environmental factors like temperature and humidity.
(iii) Reduced risk of disease transmission.
(iv) Increased productivity and growth rates.
(v) Enhanced reproductive performance.
(vi) Minimized stress levels leading to higher quality products.

(i) Preventing aggression and injury among different age groups.
(ii) Avoiding competition for resources such as food and water.
(iii) Minimizing the spread of diseases between age groups.
(iv) Tailoring feeding and management practices to specific age-related needs.

(i) Cleaning and disinfecting the entire facility.
(ii) Checking and calibrating heating equipment to maintain appropriate temperature levels.
(iii) Providing clean bedding material.
(iv) Ensuring adequate ventilation.
(v) Setting up feeders and drinkers with fresh water and appropriate chick feed.

(i) Pelt: Sheep
(ii) Bristle: Pig
(iii) Mohair: Angora goat
(iv) Veal: Calf (young cattle)
(v) Lard: Pig




(i) Cattle are ruminants with a complex four-chambered stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum), while poultry have a single-chambered stomach.
(ii) Cattle chew their cud and have the ability to ferment fibrous plant materials in the rumen, while poultry lack this capability.
(iii) Cattle have a longer digestive tract compared to poultry, allowing for more efficient digestion of roughage and cellulose.
(iv) Poultry have a crop and a gizzard, which help grind and store food, while cattle do not have these structures.
(v) Cattle rely more on microbial fermentation in the rumen for nutrient absorption, while poultry have a shorter and more simple digestive system.
(vi) The digestive enzymes and pH levels differ between the two species, with cattle being better adapted to digest fibrous plant materials.

(i) Regularly administering effective anthelmintic (dewormers) to eliminate worms.
(ii) Rotating grazing areas, avoiding overstocking, and properly managing manure to break the worm lifecycle.
(iii) Maintaining clean housing, feeders, and waterers to reduce worm transmission.
(iv) Providing a balanced diet and appropriate nutritional supplements to support the animal’s immune response.
(v) Introducing natural predators of worms, such as certain nematophagous fungi, to reduce worm populations.
(vi) Selecting animals with genetic resistance or tolerance to worm infections to gradually improve the herd’s or flock’s resilience.



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